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In modern life, exposure to aluminium is inevitable as it is released primarily from natural process. Humans are exposed to aluminium through food packaging, medicines, water and air. Kidney is a urinary organ which eliminates most toxins and other foreign substances that are either produced by the body or ingested into the body.
The present study investigated some of the effects of Aluminium chloride on the kidney of adult wistar rats. Thirty two (32) rats of both sexes were used for this study and were separated into four groups based on their gender. The rats in group A (8 rats) were regarded as the control and they received only distilled water and stock diet throughout the period of experiment. The rats in group B, C and D orally received Aluminium chloride at 500mg, 1000mg and 1500 mg/kg respectively for 31 days. The rats were sacrificed on the 32nd day by cervical dislocation. The trunk of each rat was dissected and blood was collected from the heart for biochemical evaluation. The kidneys were removed, rinsed and weighed before fixing in 10% formal saline for histological studies using H&E staining techniques.
Morphometric study shows significant differences in the organ weights between kidney weights in control and aluminium-treated rats. Kidney weights of aluminium-treated rats were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared with controls. The decrease was significant (P<0.05) in both kidneys in group B and in the left kidney for group D.
The biochemical evaluation also showed significant increase (P<0.05) in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine level in Aluminium- treated groups.
The histological results showed architectural disarrangement, including degenerative changes and dilatation and distortion of proximal tubule which increased in a dose-dependent manner in experimental groups.
This study concluded that Aluminium chloride have adversely affected the histology of the kidney in treated wistar rats which may invariably result in impairment of renal function.